Why you should take air turbulence seriously


United Airlines flight 1031 was about 80 miles east of Cancún, on its way from Panama City’s Tocumen International Airport to Houston’s George Bush Intercontinental Airport, when it encountered turbulence earlier this summer — severe turbulence.

The turbulence was so bad that multiple passengers crashed into the ceiling of the plane during the 20-minute ordeal, injuring 14, plus a crew member. Nine of the 14 injured passengers needed hospitalization, though.

Earlier this year, Aeroflot flight 270, flying from Moscow to Bangkok, hit severe “clear air turbulence” (CAT) over Myanmar. Passengers were thrown around the cabin. Even the oxygen masks dropped down as their compartments were badly shaken. Twenty-seven on the flight were hospitalized. Some required surgery. One person apparently sustained two broken arms.

The FAA reports that in 2015, 21 passengers and crew members on U.S. flights were badly injured as a result of in-flight turbulence. In 2016, that number rose to 44. Those on the FAA’s turbulence injury list have injuries that required at least 48 hours of hospitalization and included fractures; hemorrhages; nerve, muscle, or tendon damage; organ injuries; second or third-degree burns or other major injuries.

Most travelers who fly only a few times per year endure some stretches of turbulence on flights, during which the plane’s captain turns on the seatbelt sign, but few experience severe turbulence.

Turbulence results from winds, the jet stream, a plane’s proximity to convective weather patterns, or mountainous terrain and other factors. CAT is the turbulent movement of air masses in the absence of any visual clues. Some people refer to CAT as “air pockets.” It can occur without any warning whatsoever, and it can happen on any flight.

Related story:   Weekend survey: When should a hotel refund a nonrefundable room?

Using new advanced technology designed to locate and predict turbulence, including CAT, the airlines are attempting avoid turbulence or at least give passengers advance warning.

Currently, planning for and spotting turbulence is an inexact science. Pilots create flight plans well ahead of takeoff using existing weather and turbulence data. Unfortunately, as soon as they take off, their plan is old news. Planes have radar that can see hundreds of miles in front of the plane’s path, but it’s not a great indicator of turbulence, especially CAT.

The technology that will hopefully locate and predict upcoming air turbulence is a combination of WiFi connectivity, tablet apps and what is essentially data “crowdsourcing.”


Delta is already using their “Flight Weather Viewer” app. The app shows actual and predicted turbulence in 3D color-coded maps, calculated by pulling in information from avionics sensors on aircraft in flight, transmitted in real time by their WiFi supplier, Gogo. Honeywell has created a similar app, GoDirect.

By analyzing data from hundreds of planes (“crowdsourcing” it), current turbulence information and predictions can be displayed to pilots in real time, allowing them to alter their flight path and warn passengers and crew. The system should be able to forecast much of the invisible CAT that isn’t well predicted today.

Even when pilots are able to avoid more air turbulence than they can today, or at least predict it better to warn passengers, it will still be up to passengers to help themselves prevent injury during turbulence on their flights.

Whenever you fly:

  • Fasten your seatbelt. When seated, all passengers should keep their seatbelts snugly fastened throughout their flights, whether the seatbelt sign is on or not. Seatbelts don’t have to be so tight that they’re uncomfortable. Make yours loose enough so you can shift your seat position, but snug enough to prevent you from being thrown out of your seat in severe turbulence. If you’re sleeping in a lie-flat seat, wear your seatbelt tight enough to keep safe. In my opinion, children should never sit in a parent’s lap on an airplane. No one is strong enough to hold their children, even babies, in their lap during severe turbulence. Belt your children in approved child safety seats, appropriate for their age and size, strapped to their own separate seats on the plane.
  • Stow gear not in use. Games, tablets, cameras, music players, laptop computers, etc. can become projectiles if a flight encounters severe turbulence. Stow them when they’re not being used. Push your personal item well under the seat in front of you to prevent it from flying around in severe turbulence.
  • Keep overhead bin doors closed at all times. If you retrieve anything from the overhead bin, make sure you close the bin door and be sure it’s latched. If another passenger leaves the door open, take charge of your safety and close it yourself to prevent bags and gear stowed there from falling or flying around the cabin during air turbulence.
  • Follow flight crew instructions. Listen to flight crew directives and follow them. If the seatbelt sign is turned on during your flight, remain in your seat, or if elsewhere in the cabin, immediately return to your seat, then buckle up.
Related story:   “You will be charged $25 per bag on your return flight”

You might never encounter severe air turbulence, but it’s always a possibility. Stay safe. Prepare for the worst by following my suggestions, while hoping for the best.


Ned Levi

Ned Levi has traveled the world as an engineer and business executive. He is the founder of NSL Associates, a technology consulting company, and is a professional photographer specializing in travel and wildlife photography.

  • Mel65

    Wonder how many of the injured passengers sued despite their failure to follow instructions and buckle up while seated.

  • ctporter

    Good reminders on keeping items stowed when not in use, not just remembering to wear the seatbelt. Hopefully the most turbulence most will encounter is the bumpy flight that makes it difficult to not spill your beverage. For slight bumpy it helps to hold your beverage in your hand rather than leave it on the tray table, but Ive been on flights where even that does not work. Once when we hit very bumpy weather the Flight Attendant passed a garbage sack to the 1st row of passengers to dump beverages and cups in and the passengers then passed the bag to the row behind as it was too bumpy for the FAs to get out of their seats.

  • disqus_00YDCZxqDV

    I always have my seat belt fastened while in my seat, and I make sure my kids do to – it’s not inconvenient

  • AMA

    I don’t start the car unless my seatbelt is buckled. I don’t sit on a plane unless my seatbelt is buckled. Why are people such idiots?

  • Alan Gore

    Yes, keep the seatbelt fastened by default in flight, meaning fastened except when actually out of your seat.

    Keep personal items stowed in your under-seat carryon, which should be arranged so that the items you need most of the time, like medications or your tablet, ride in outside compartments. Backpacks work well for this, because the good ones have a variety of zippered stowage on the outside. Never put anything in the seat back pocket taht you ever want to see again.

  • sirwired

    I will say, the advice that you should actually remain in your seat the entire time the seatbelt sign is lit is not always practical. Some pilots turn that thing on at the slightest jiggle and won’t turn it off for a very long time… and if you gotta go, you gotta go.

    I do fasten my seatbelt while seated, but if I have a need to use the facilities, my guideline for if it’s safe is if the cabin crew is up and about. (And if the pilot wants the crew to be seated, usually, a specific announcement will be made.) Of course I do not even think about unfastening during initial climb or final descent.

  • Tricia K

    This is why it makes me crazy that parents are still allowed to hold babies under two on their laps. I recently flew from MSP to DUB via JFK and a couple across the aisle from me was flying to Greece with their 21 month old baby (they were very specific about the age when I asked about her because she was so cute!)I heard them say to their baby, “next time you’ll get your own seat, but mommy and daddy can’t afford a vacation in Greece if we have to buy an airplane seat for you.” I certainly hope their flight from JFK to Greece was turbulence free.

%d bloggers like this:
Get smart. Sign up for the newsletter.